We r the and will be leaders..

We r the and will be leaders..

Monday, 21 October 2013

MATERIAL FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION BBM


Woodrow Wilson
In the United States of America, Woodrow Wilson is considered the father of public administration. He first formally recognized public administration in an 1887 article entitled "The Study of Administration." The future president wrote that "it is the object of administrative study to discover, first, what government can properly and successfully do, and, secondly, how it can do these proper things with the utmost possible efficiency and at the least possible cost either of money or of energy."[7] Wilson was more influential to the science of public administration than Von Stein, primarily due to an article Wilson wrote in 1887 in which he advocated four concepts:
·         Separation of politics and administration
·         Comparative analysis of political and private organizations
·         Improving efficiency with business-like practices and attitudes toward daily operations
·         Improving the effectiveness of public service through management and by training civil servants, merit-based assessment
The separation of politics and administration has been the subject of lasting debate. The different perspectives regarding this dichotomy contribute to differentiating characteristics of the suggested generations of public administration.
By the 1920s, scholars of public administration had responded to Wilson's solicitation and thus textbooks in this field were introduced. A few distinguished scholars of that period were, Luther Gulick, Lyndall Urwick, Henri Fayol, Frederick Taylor, and others. Frederick Taylor (1856-1915), another prominent scholar in the field of administration and management also published a book entitled ‘The Principles of Scientific Management’ (1911). He believed that scientific analysis would lead to the discovery of the ‘one best way’ to do things and /or carrying out an operation. This, according to him could help save cost and time. Taylor’s technique was later introduced to private industrialists, and later into the various government organizations (Jeong, 2007).[21]
Taylor's approach is often referred to as Taylor's Principles, and/or Taylorism. Taylor's scientific management consisted of main four principles (Frederick W. Taylor, 1911):
·         Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks.
·         Scientifically select, train, and develop each employee rather than passively leaving them to train themselves.
·         Provide ‘Detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in the performance of that worker's discrete task’ (Montgomery 1997: 250).
·         Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks.
Taylor had very precise ideas about how to introduce his system (approach): ‘It is only through enforced standardization of methods, enforced adoption of the best implements and working conditions, and enforced cooperation that this faster work can be assured. And the duty of enforcing the adoption of standards and enforcing this cooperation rests with management alone.’[22]
The American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) the leading professional group for public administration was founded in 1939. ASPA sponsors the journal Public Administration Review, which was founded in 1940.[23]
2.1 INTRODUCTION

Public Administration as an activity as old as human civilization. But
as a social science theorization on public administration is very
recent. In 1887, Woodrow wilson has written the book on “The
Study of Public Administration”, and laid the foundation of the
science of Public Administration. After that it had underwent rapid
transformation in its scope, nature and role. Avasthi and
Maheshwari have divided the evolution of Public Administration into
the following five phases.

2.2 1. Phase I - 1887-1926 :-
About the changing nature of Public Administration, in this phase
following changes came out -
a) Separation of Public Administration from political science
b) Public Administration is the visible side of Goverment.
c) Prof. Woodrow Wilson has given definition, nature, role and
importance of Public Administration.
d) L. D. White has written the first textbook on the subject i.e.
‘Introduction to the study of Public Administration.’

Prof. Woodrow Wilson is called the ‘Father of Public Administration’
because the genesis of the subject can be traced back to Wilson’s
book “The study of Public Administration” published in 1887. In this
book he made a distraction between political - Science and Public
Administration. Before this, it was treated as a branch of political
science. Secondly, while commenting on the role of Public
Administration, he said Administration is the most obvious part of
government. It is government in action and the most visible side of
the government. Hence, he defined “Public Administration as
detailed and systematic application of law. It consists of all those
operations having for their purpose the enforcement of public policy
as declared by authority.” He argued for a science of administration
“Which shall seek to straighten the paths of government.” Thus,
Wilson had projected the dichotomy view, which was picked up by
other writers.

In 1900, Frank J. Goodnow published his book “Politics and
Administration”. In his book he developed the wilsonian theme. He
argued that “Politics and administration were two distinct functions
of a government.” According to him politics formulate the policies
and administration execute these policies. Thus, Goodnow made a
technical distinction between politics and administration.

In 1926, L. D. While published the first text-book on the subject.
This book reflects the theme of dichotomy between politics and
administration. He emphasized that politics and administration are
to be kept separate. He also visualized involvement of
administration in policy matters and through policy with politics.

Conclusion -
It may be seen that the dominant feature of the first period was a
passionate belief in politics - administration dichotomy.

2.2.2. Phase II - 1927-1937 :
In the changing nature of public Administration this period can be
called as principles of Administration and established the discipline
of Public Administration as an independent science.

In 1927, W.F. Willough has written a book “Principles of Public
Administration.” The title of the book indicates the new thrust in 
 thinking and established the subject as an independent science.

This period witnessed publication of a number of important works
on this subject. The more important among them are -

1. Mary Parker Folleft’s “Creative Experience”
2. Henri Fayol’s “Industrial and General Mangement.”
3. Mooney’s “Principles of Organisation”.
4. Luther Gulick “Science of Administration.”

Gulick explained the principles of administration. These are seven
principles known as POSDCORB.

Conclusion - Thus in this period subject acquired -
1) The Status of separate subject of social science
2) Secondly. It was considered, as the science of administration.
3) Developed the principles of administration and theories. These
theories and principles were in great demand both in government
and business.

2.2.3) Phase III - 1938-1947 :-
This period brought new changes in the nature of Public
Administration
1. Some thinkers refuted politics administration dichotomy.
2. They challenged the claim of Public Administration as a science.
3. Emphasised the environmental effects on adminstrative
behaviour.

While Public Administration Was taking shape as an independent
discipline, C. I. Barnard, Simon, Robat Dahl challenged the claim of
Public Administration as a science of administration. These thinkers
disagrees with the stand taken by Gullick. Simon, in 1947 published
his book “Administrative Behaviour”. In that he said there is no such
thing as principles of administration; what are paraded as
‘Principles’ are in truth no better than proverbs. There is lack of
scientific validity and universal relevancy in Public Administration.

Robert Dahl emphasizes the need to take into account normative
considerations, human behaviour and sociological factors while
defining the parameters of public administration. He brought
behaviouralism in Public Administration. He emphasised the
environmental effects on administrative behaviour.

Conclusion - Hence this period is called as era of challange to
Public Administration.

2.2.4. Phase IV - 1948 to 1970
Owing to the challenge posed by the behaviouralist, the discipline
of Public Administration passed through the crisis of identity in the
forth phase. 

 Because pre 1947 viewpoint upheld the politics - administration
dichotomy and the post 1947 view point adocated their fusion.

Pfiffner stated that politics and administration are so intermingled
and confused that a clear distinction is difficult.

Kingsley saw Adminstration as a branch of Politics.

Paul Appleby upheld the fusion view, He said at higher levels
administration is more generalised, takes on a greater poitical
character and has a total governmental significance. At lower
levels, it is less political and more particularistic.

1) Waldo in his Administrative State (1948) Widened the orientation
of Public Administration to include policy issues and decision -
making processes.

On the other hand, many political scientists began to argue that the
true objective of Public Administration was “intellectualized
understanding” of the executive. There was also a talk of continued
‘dominion of political science over Public Administration.’

In Short, this period witnessed the spectacle of Political - Science
not only letting Public Administration separate itself from it, but also
not fostering and encouraging its growth and development within its
own field.

Therefore, in the post world war II period, the credentials of Public
Administration to being a science and a distinct discipline and apart
from political, - Science were questioned. This led to the twin
development of Public Administration being viewed as political
science an also as an Administration science.

2.2.5. Fifth Phase 1971 onwards
In this period Public Administration registered great progress and
enriched vision.

1. Focus on the dynamics of adminstration.
2. It is considered as inter-disciplinary.
3. Talk of New Public Administration
4. New trends emerged – in the subject of Public Administration i.e.

i) Comparative Administration
ii) Development Administration
iii) Market orientation - State and Market

1. Focus on the dynamics of administration -
It is focusing its attention on the dynamics of administration. It is
also drawing heavily on the management sciences.
 
 2. It is considered as inter-disciplinary- Public Administration has
attracted within its fold scholars from various disciplines and thus is
becoming inter-disciplinery in its nature
Role and Importance of Public Adminstration -
In todays modern state and in developing countries functions and
role of Public Adminstration is very important. The role and
importance of Public Adminstration are as follows.

1. It is the basis of government.
2. It is the instrument of change in the society.
3. It plays vital role in the life of the people.
4. It is an instrument for executing laws, policies, programmes of
the state.
5. It is a stabilising force in the society as it provides continuity.
6. It is instrument of national integration in the developing countries
which are facing classwars.

1. It is the basis of Government -
It is possible for a state to exist without a legislature or judiciary; but
not even the most backward state can do without administrative
machinery. The modern state cannot confine its field of activities to
merely maintenance of law and order, dispensation of Justice,
collection of revenue and taxes and participation in welfare
activities. The modern welfare state is expected to provide more
and more services and amenities to the people. Public
Adminstration is the machinery used by the state to place itself in a
position to make plans and programmes that can be carried out.

2. It is the instrument of change in the society -
Public Adminstration is regarded as an instrument of change and is
expected to accelerate the process of development. In our country,
the government has undertaken the task of levelling down the
economic inequalities, spreading education among all abolishing
untouchability securing equality of status, rights of women and
effective and all round economic and industrial development. The
burden of carrying out these social changes in a planned and
orderly way rests upon the Public Adminstration of the country. The
success of Indian democracy will depend not only on the wisdom of
the legislature but more on the capability and sense of purpose on
the part of the Adminstration.

3. It plays vital role in the life of the people -
Today every aspect of human life come within the range of Public
Adminstration. Various departments of government such as
education, social welfare, food, agriculture, health, sanitation,
transport, communication etc. are run by the department of Public
Adminstration. Thus Public Adminstration is rendering various types
of services to the people from birth to death of an individuel.

4. It is a stabilizing force in the society as it provides continuity
Public Adminstration is carried on by the civil servants who are the
permanent executives. Political executives i.e. ministers may come
and go, systems of government or constitutions may under go
change but administation goes on for ever. Hence, Public 
 Adminstration is a great stabilising force in society. It is a preserver
of the society and its culture.

5. It is instrument of national integration in the developing
countries which are facing classwars –

Conclusion -
The success of governement is dependent on the ability of public
administration. The future of civilized government rests upon the
ability, to develop a service and philosophy and a practice of
adminstration competent to discharge the Public functions of
civilized society.
 NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

Introduction :- In the evolution of Public Administration one more
stage is the emergence of “New Public Administration.” During
1960s it was found that the science of Public Administration
 Reasons of Emergence of public administration
 Definitions Hallmakrs Difference between Development Administration and Public Administration

 Emergence
In 1967, American Academy of political and social science
organised a conference in Philedelphia. The topic was “The Theory
and practice of Public Administration : Scope, objectives and
methods.” In this conference participants expressed their views and
after discussion following points emerged -

1. Bureaucracy should be studied structurally as well as
functionally.
2. Definition of the subject is as difficult as de-lineation of its
scope.
3. A hierarchical view of organisational authority needs to be
changed; administrators must view workers as “coordinates”
rather than ‘subordinates’,
4. Policy and political considerations are replacing management
concerns as the major focus of public Administration.
5. Future administrators should be trained in professional schools.
Public Administration courses should emphasis not only
Administrative organisation and procedures but also in
interdisciplinary approach.
6. Public Administration has not been able to deal with societal
problems.

Conclusion of the discussion was - Public Administration should be
viewed as an acadmic discipline, as a field exercise and as
administration in the public interest.

In 1968 in Minnowbrook conference Dwight Waldo expressed
following points about new Public Administration.

1. What is the proper terrain of Public Administration?
2. What are the logics of inquiry appropriate to the tarrain?
3. What is the social relevance of knowledge in Public
Administration?

In 1971, Frank Marini published a book ‘Towards a new Public
Administration’ New Public Administration emphasis on the
following themes :-

1. Rejected the value neutral view
2. Less generic and more public
3. Stress on social equity
4. Anti-bureaucratic, anti-hierachical, anti-technical.
5. Socially conscious and client oriented view.
6. Stress on Decentralization of administrative process.
7. Stress on qualitative transformation. 

1. Rejected the value neutral view -
The new Public Administration made clear its basic normative
concern in administrative studies. It rejected the value neutral view
taken by behavioural political science.

2. Less generic and more public -
New Public Administration stresses on innovation and change.
Hence, it take more public and client oriented view.

3. Stress on Social equity -
The protagonists of new Public Administration state that the
distributive functions and impact of governmental institutions should
be Public Administration’s basic concern. The purpose of public
action should be the reduction of economic and social disparities
and the enhancement of life opportunities for all social groups.

They take action-oriented stand and said that Public Administrators
should work for the removal of the wrongs of society.

4. Anti-bureaucratic, anti-theoretic and anti-technical -
To serve the cause of social equity is to actively work for social
change. The attack is on the status-quo and against the powerful
interest entrenched in permanent institutions.

5. Take client-oriented and socially Conscious view -
In the third - world countries where Public Administration is in dire
need of basic, qualitative transformation. New Public Administration
displays an intense concern for relevant societal problems.

6. Stress on Decentralization of Administrative process -
New Public Administration give importance to Institutional pluralism.
Functions, responsibilities should be distributed in many parts.

7. Stress on qualitative transformation -
It stresses ethics and values. It lays emphasis on change. The
study of formal organisation, its structure and processes is of
secondary importance to the new theorists.

According to this new approach the most important need of the
times is to be alive to the contemporary issue and problems with a
view to finding ways and means for their solution, and to have
organisational change to suit the changing times.

2.5.3 Conclusion - Public Administration of the state will become
more meaning and useful with this characteristics of new Public
Administration.

Introduction :- In the evolution of Public Administration one more
stage is the emergence of “New Public Administration.” During
1960s it was found that the science of Public Administration
displayed unawereness of numerous socio-economic and political
problems as well as its inadequacy to offer any solution to the
problems.

Emergence
In 1967, American Academy of political and social science
organised a conference in Philedelphia. The topic was “The Theory
and practice of Public Administration : Scope, objectives and
methods.” In this conference participants expressed their views and
after discussion following points emerged -

1. Bureaucracy should be studied structurally as well as
functionally.
2. Definition of the subject is as difficult as de-lineation of its
scope.
3. A hierarchical view of organisational authority needs to be
changed; administrators must view workers as “coordinates”
rather than ‘subordinates’,
4. Policy and political considerations are replacing management
concerns as the major focus of public Administration.
5. Future administrators should be trained in professional schools.
Public Administration courses should emphasis not only
Administrative organisation and procedures but also in
interdisciplinary approach.
6. Public Administration has not been able to deal with societal
problems.

Conclusion of the discussion was - Public Administration should be
viewed as an acadmic discipline, as a field exercise and as
administration in the public interest.

In 1968 in Minnowbrook conference Dwight Waldo expressed
following points about new Public Administration.

1. What is the proper terrain of Public Administration?
2. What are the logics of inquiry appropriate to the tarrain?
3. What is the social relevance of knowledge in Public
Administration?

In 1971, Frank Marini published a book ‘Towards a new Public
Administration’ New Public Administration emphasis on the
following themes :-

1. Rejected the value neutral view
2. Less generic and more public
3. Stress on social equity
4. Anti-bureaucratic, anti-hierachical, anti-technical.
5. Socially conscious and client oriented view.
6. Stress on Decentralization of administrative process.
7. Stress on qualitative transformation. 

 1. Rejected the value neutral view -
The new Public Administration made clear its basic normative
concern in administrative studies. It rejected the value neutral view
taken by behavioural political science.

2. Less generic and more public –

New Public Administration stresses on innovation and change.
Hence, it take more public and client oriented view.

3. Stress on Social equity -
The protagonists of new Public Administration state that the
distributive functions and impact of governmental institutions should
be Public Administration’s basic concern. The purpose of public
action should be the reduction of economic and social disparities
and the enhancement of life opportunities for all social groups.

They take action-oriented stand and said that Public Administrators
should work for the removal of the wrongs of society.

4. Anti-bureaucratic, anti-theoretic and anti-technical -
To serve the cause of social equity is to actively work for social
change. The attack is on the status-quo and against the powerful
interest entrenched in permanent institutions.

5. Take client-oriented and socially Conscious view -
In the third - world countries where Public Administration is in dire
need of basic, qualitative transformation. New Public Administration
displays an intense concern for relevant societal problems.

6. Stress on Decentralization of Administrative process -
New Public Administration give importance to Institutional pluralism.
Functions, responsibilities should be distributed in many parts.

7. Stress on qualitative transformation -
It stresses ethics and values. It lays emphasis on change. The
study of formal organisation, its structure and processes is of
secondary importance to the new theorists.

According to this new approach the most important need of the
times is to be alive to the contemporary issue and problems with a
view to finding ways and means for their solution, and to have
organisational change to suit the changing times.

2.5.3 Conclusion - Public Administration of the state will become
more meaning and useful with this characteristics of new Public

Administration.